Diabetes Mellitus - Symptoms, Causes, Treatment, and Prevention

Diabetes Mellitus (DM) is also known as Diabetes and it is one or more metabolic disorders that occur in the human body. A person suffering from Diabetes accumulates high Diabetes blood sugar levels over a long period of time. Symptoms of high blood sugar include frequent urination, enhanced thirst, and hunger and if not treated Diabetes can cause numerous short-term or long term medical complications including stroke, cardiovascular diseases, foot ulcers, chronic kidney diseases, damaged eyes.  

What Causes Diabetes Mellitus?

The disorder is caused if the pancreas fails to produce sufficient quantity of insulin. It can also happen if the body is not responding properly to the insulin that is produced.

Different Types of Diabetes

There are mainly three primary types of diabetes mellitus and they are as follows: –

Type 1 Diabetes Causes

Type 1 Diabetes Causes

Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus, which is caused if the pancreas fails to produce sufficient quantity of insulin. The pancreas is expected to produce insulin, however, the cause of the inability of the pancreas to produce insulin is not known.

Type 2 Diabetes Causes

Type 2 Diabetes Causes

In type 2 DM, the cells fail to respond properly to insulin. Consequently, a lack of insulin develops within the body. This form is also known as adult-onset diabetes. The causes of diabetes mellitus involve obesity (obesity and diabetes) and inadequate exercises.

Gestational Diabetes

Gestational Diabetes

Gestational diabetes is another form of diabetes that occurs in a pregnant woman who does not have a previous history of the disease but develops high blood sugar levels all of a sudden.  

What are the Signs and Symptoms of Diabetes Mellitus?

Symptoms of Diabetes Mellitus

The diabetes mellitus symptoms of untreated diabetes are weight loss, increased urination, increased thirst and hunger. In the case of the diabetes type 1, the signs of type-1 and type-2 diabetes can rapidly develop in weeks, sometimes months. Whereas in type 2 Diabetes Mellitus, these symptoms gradually develop, sometimes remain absent.

There are other diabetes type-1 and type-2 symptoms and they include:

  • Headache
  • Blurry vision
  • Fatigue
  • Itchy skin
  • Slow healing of cuts and bruises.

If there is high glucose in the blood, then the lens of the eye absorbs that and it leads to an alteration in the shape of the lens resulting in blurred vision.

Symptoms of type-1 and type-2 diabetes can include skin rashes may occur and they are referred to as diabetic dermadromes.  

Diabetic Emergencies

Persons with type one diabetes/type two diabetes have a low diabetes sugar level. The corresponding medical cases are mild and are not regarded as medical emergencies. However, keep in mind that severe level of diabetes can lead to permanent brain damage or death.

The following symptoms are considered as emergency cases:

  • The effects can be feeling of uneasiness, profuse sweating, trembling, enhanced appetite, confusion in decision-making, behavioral alterations like aggressiveness, other symptoms like unconsciousness, seizures.
  • Often diabetic patients exhibit rapid breathing and sweating, characterized by pale skin.
  • If blood sugar levels are low then in moderate cases treatment of the condition involves intake of something high in sugar.
  • If cases are severe such as unconsciousness then treatment involves taking glucagon injections.

Side Effects of Diabetes

Side Effects of Diabetes

All forms of diabetes (diabetes 1 and 2) pose a threat to an individual’s health and life. People suffering from diabetes understand their condition after many years. Here are some side effects of not treating diabetes on time:

  1. Cardiovascular Diseases: Diabetes increases the risk of cardiovascular diseases. Roughly 75% of the deaths caused due to diabetes is because of the blockage of the coronary arteries. Other complications can cause stroke, peripheral artery diseases.
  2. Blood Vessel Damage: The major complication due to diabetes is the adverse effect that the condition poses to the blood vessels. Mellitus diabetes causes damage to the small blood vessels.
  3. Diabetic Retinopathy: It causes damage to the eyes (diabetic retinopathy). Diabetic retinopathy leads to gradual loss of vision, it causes blindness.
  4. Kidney Failure: Diabetes Mellitus causes damage to the kidneys (diabetic nephropathy) and it leads to tissue scarring, chronic kidney diseases. When diabetes causes severe damage to the kidneys then dialysis or kidney transplantation is needed.
  5. Diabetic Neuropathy: Chronic diabetes causes damage to the body nerves also known as diabetic neuropathy. The symptoms of diabetic neuropathy include pain, numbness in the skin.
  6. Foot Damage: Diabetes 2 causes foot problems like the diabetes foot ulcers and they are difficult to treat. In many instances, they require amputation of the limbs.
  7. Fatigue and Imbalance: Different types of diabetes, including diabetic ketoacidosis, causes weakness and old diabetic patients who are on insulin have an enhanced risk of falls and extreme fatigue.

Treating Diabetes

Here are some general methods to treat Diabetes Mellitus:

  • Type one Diabetes Mellitus needs to be managed using insulin injections.
  • Diabetes type 2 requires further treatments (type-1 diabetes and type-2 diabetes treatments) involving medications either with or without insulin.
  • Insulin, together with the use of certain oral medications, causes low blood sugar levels.
  • Those who are suffering from type 2 DM and are generally obese. Exercise for obesity or weight loss surgery is an effective measure.
  • In the context of gestational diabetes, it is important to mention that it resolves after the baby birth.

Diabetic Medication – Insulin

Diabetic Medication - Insulin

Diabetes is a metabolism disorder. It arises from the body’s incapability to use the digested food for growth and energy. When treating type 2 diabetes it is important to understand the various medication diabetes treatment options. While treating gestational diabetes, diagnosis of the condition, understanding gestational diabetes symptoms is crucial.  The diabetes care team help to manage different aspects of the condition.

Insulin treatment is a part of the treatment for diabetes. Insulin is a hormone that controls blood sugar levels. There are various types of insulin to treat conditions like diabetes. In the context of insulin usage, there are certain storage tips that one needs to follow. However, there are certain side effects to the use of insulin. They can be considered as the side effects of diabetes disease.

Among the different forms of insulin used for diabetes treatment are the rapid acting, short acting, intermediate acting, long acting and the pre mixed. Some insulin types have their own side effects and therefore it is important for the patient to consult a registered medical practitioner prior usage of the medicine.

Insulin is available in injectable form. However, it is not the only diabetes treating medicine, which is available in the injectable form. There is non-insulin diabetes treating injections, which can be prescribed by the doctor.

Among the other types of diabetes medications, there are oral pills, inhalers that can be used to treat conditions like diabetes. Whether diabetes curing injections or oral pills it is important for the patient to consult the doctor.

Lifestyle of a Diabetic Person

High levels of blood sugar cause Diabetes Mellitus type 2 and hence it is important to plan to control blood-sugar levels in order to treat the condition of diabetes.

At the same time, low blood sugar levels can cause several disorders or even death. How to control diabetes naturally?

  • This can be treated by a well-controlled diet for diabetes, some medications, and exercise. 
  • Those having high or low levels of blood sugar need to be monitored closely for glucose.
  • Patients suffering from conditions like Diabetes Mellitus require regular diabetes test (Diabetes blood test).
  • Seek the advice of a medical practitioner about the diabetic breakfast, diabetic meal plan, and the diabetic food list they can eat.
  • It is important to take proper diabetes insulin dosage. An insulin overdose can be avoided by following a few simple rules.

Diet and Exercise for Diabetes

Diet and Exercise for Diabetes

Carbohydrates affect blood sugar levels than proteins or fats and other ‘Do’s’ for diabetics include:

  • Food for diabetics includes a balanced intake of carbohydrate, protein, and fat is important for a healthy lifestyle of a diabetic patient.
  • Fruits for diabetics need to contain low levels of carbohydrate and glucose.
  • Diabetic patients cannot control their hunger they feel hungry and thirsty.
  • Those who are diabetic need to control their different type of diabetes diet/gestational diabetes diet, they need to discuss with their doctor about the diabetic food that they need to consume.
  • Alcohol and diabetes can be detrimental as alcohol consumption increases the blood sugar level and therefore diabetics need to refrain from consuming alcohol.
  • Cinnamon and herbs for diabetes can be taken under supervision.
  • Honey and diabetes can be troublesome.
  • Diabetics need to avoid excess sugar in their diabetic diet.

Diabetes natural cure sometimes implies maintaining a healthy diet for type-2 diabetes, consuming specific herbs, and doing a lot of exercises.

Better Living

Patients with type-2 diabetes mellitus can live well if they can manage their glucose levels during their sick days, care for the skin and foot. It is because people with diabetes have dry skin.

They are more prone to injuries, more likely to get an infection on their skin and once the skin is injured or infected then it takes a longer time to heal. Therefore, it is important for individuals to take special care of their skin to avoid skin issues.

Diabetics need to check their feet once daily and protect them from cuts, injuries, blisters, and corns.

Preventing Further Complications

Diabetic Sugar Cubes

There can be several complications of diabetes. Diabetes can adversely affect each and every body organ. In the long run, if the condition is not controlled properly then it affects the heart, eyes, blood vessels, kidneys.

There can be a number of type 2 diabetes complications and therefore the patient, who is suffering from the condition needs to take care of the entity’s body, adjust lifestyle, and avoid excessive carbohydrates.

Related Conditions Due to Diabetes

Here are some other complications that you might experience:

  • Nerve pain due to diabetes, known as diabetic peripheral neuropathy, can be constant, severe, and hard to treat and can lead to diabetic coma. Controlling the blood sugar level in the body can create a difference.
  • Diabetes increases the risk of eye issues. There are common diabetes related eye diseases and for each such ailment treatments are available. Concerned patients require visiting the doctor for proper type 1 and type 2 diabetes diagnosis and treatment.
  • Skin conditions pertaining to Diabetes are common. However, in recent times, most can be treated successfully before they turn into a serious medical issue.
  • Diabetic nephropathy results in kidney failure. There are type 1 diabetes symptoms/type 2 diabetes symptoms. However, in contemporary times many are able to diagnose and treat the disease.
  • Most infections in diabetics can be treated. However, in this respect, it is important to say that identifying the symptoms makes the treatment process easy.
  • Diabetics are more prone to heart diseases. There are different ways available online which can lower such risks. Adopting a healthy lifestyle is recommended.
  • Diabetes may be linked with depression. Spotting the symptoms of depression, treating them is imperative.
  • Smoking and consuming alcohol is risky for individuals suffering from diabetes. Quitting such habits helps to keep the condition under check.
  • Diabetics are more sensitive to viruses including the common cold virus.  In such situations, the person needs to take appropriate measures to stay uninfected by the viruses.
  • Diabetes in pregnancy can be damaging to the mother if the diabetes is at a critical stage. The patient needs to seek appropriate medical advice to avoid complications during pregnancy.

How to Prevent Diabetes

How to Prevent DiabetesDiabetes prevention is the best type-1 diabetes cure as far as diabetes is concerned.

  • Prevention and treatment of Diabetes Mellitus (also gestational diabetes treatment) involve a person’s maintaining a healthy diet, doing regular physical exercises, controlling weight, reduce obesity and fatness.
  • Tobacco has an adverse effect on diabetic patients. Therefore, it is important for diabetic patients to avoid using tobacco.
  • For preventing diabetes and its ill effects, individuals require controlling blood pressure, maintaining proper foot care.

*Disclaimer: The treatments mentioned above may not be applicable to those suffering from allergies. It is always best to seek the advice of a doctor for appropriate diagnosis and treatment.